The key to the improvement of inter-ethnic relations is whether all ethnic groups can finally take on the road to common prosperity. The Central Government has taken a series of policies and measures conducive to the economic and cultural development of ethnic minorities, and mobilized and organized advanced Han regions to support minority areas so as to narrow the gap between these regions and bridge up inter-ethnic differences. At the same time, government agencies at all levels attach great importance to the coordination of inter-ethnic relations and regard it as an ongoing and continuous task, and people of all ethnic groups pay a lot of attention to and take an active part in that Endeavour. According to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, whether a cadre is a role model in carrying out ethnic policies and enhancing ethnic unity is an important criterion for the selection and evaluation of officials. Problems that crop up in ethnic relations must be straightened out through legal means and properly handled with due prudence and caution.
The governments at various levels in Xinjiang have done comprehensive and detailed work in improving inter-ethnic relations. In 1951, the Political Council released the Instruction on Handling Appellations, Place Names, Memorials, Inscriptions and Tablets That Are Discriminatory Against or Insulting to Ethnic Minorities, which orders all such discriminatory or insulting terms or names left over from history to be banned, altered, sealed or stored up. In February 1954, with the approval of the Political Council, Xinjiang Provincial People’s Government changed a batch of place names that were discriminatory against minorities. For example, “Dihua” was replaced with “Urumqi”, “Zhenxi” with “Barkol”, and “Gongha”with “Nilka” Most of these places were actually restored to their names in local ethnic language. With the help of the government, some minority people who were forced to leave their hometown during wars and famines before the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang returned to their native land, which they did not see for several decades. In 1930s, tens of thousands of Kazakhs in Xinjiang were obliged to move east to Qinghai and Gansu. Some of these people moved back and resettled in Xinjiang in later stage. In 1988, over 900 Tibetans who previously moved from Naqu region of Tibet to Hejing County of Xinjiang reise lhasa tibet returned to and resettled in Tibet in three batches.
It is an important means to keep harmonious ethnic relations to educate officials and general public alike from different ethnic groups on ethnic unity and solidarity in a profound and sustained way, publicize ethnic policies and create a public opinion environment favorable for ethnic unity. In 1982, Xinjiang was the first among all provinces, autonomous regions and directly-controlled municipalities of China to convene the “Conference on Commending Advanced Entities and Individuals in Promoting Ethnic Unity and Progress”.